We came to Algeria on the Mediterranean coast, which is the capital of Algeria, the largest country in the 11th Africa in the world. The country is 2.4 million km² but 90% of it is desert, the population is concentrated in coastal areas near the sea. Algeria, a North African country, is a colony of France for many years, so you can feel France clearly here. Other Arab countries, almost everywhere playing Arab music, characteristic Arab dressed people and behaviors do not exist here, modern buildings built in the colonial era of 1830-1962 squares, monuments adorning the city or something you think you are in the French coastal cities.


It is possible to come across many Ottoman traces in Algeria under the Ottoman rule between 1534-1830. The largest mosque in Africa is the largest mosque in Africa with 120 thousand people, which can be seen from all sides with its four-cornered minaret at an altitude of 265 meters. Ulen 120 thousand people enter here at the same time how to get out, which road which parking. It’s the transport of people … but the biggest mosque. We did the same with our complex.


We’re constantly escorting a police car, like we’re a little cool, you know, we’re driving from the front. While we are wandering around, the cops are always with us. When asked, our tradition to accompany the guests answered that we would do it to everyone, hopefully it is.


We started the city tour, the first Kasbah. This is where the first urbanization began, the old city. Nations have lived in these lands for 6 thousand years in different cultures and civilizations. Old and neglected narrow streets, lots of small artisans behind small gates .. Dar Khdabudj Amis Palace, built in 1570 by the wealthy family of the period. Since 1980, it has been converted into a museum where traditional cultural and artistic works are exhibited. The tiles whose walls reflect the culture of this place are really beautiful, well-kept clean place. The Kasbah is a UNESCO World Heritage site for thousands of years of culture and civilization.


The palace here too. Mustafa Dey Palace was built in 1797. This Mustafa has nothing to do with the Ottoman Empire. In Algeria there is a period of “Deys”. Strong and powerful families established their own sovereignty in the region and they were called by the name “dey”. This is the Mustafa Dey Palace. This geography also reigned in 1631-1830 in many parts of their region. This period in our history “uncles” as the period passes. Mustafa Dey Palace with Ottoman territories outside the largest palace and recently restored Turkey’s contribution has been restored.


Ketchaour Mosque was converted into a cathedral during the French period between 1612 and 1830, and in 1962 it was reopened as a mosque for worship.


The French Notre Dam church, which was built for the French in this period, which is seen from all sides on a high hill, is a Catholic church built in the name of Saint Mary. It is very nice and clean according to time and conditions but I don’t know if it has any customers, 1% of the population is Christian,

 In the Arab world, mint tea, which has been drunk a lot, I don’t know who invented it, but among the things I didn’t like, I’m trying again.


Every Friday there was a protest march against the government all over the country, so we had to make changes to the program. So you should not wander under foot too.


17th century. da Mustafa Bin Omai was sent into exile from Tunisia to Algeria, where he built his own palace and settled here. When he died, his palace was turned into a museum upon his will and he was named as Bardo Museum. Indeed, important materials and artifacts with anthropological values ​​dating back millions of years are exhibited. A beautifully crafted museum.


The colonialist countries, where colonial countries enter, place importance on issues such as road, education, transportation and life, and invest in them primarily. The city of Algeria has been organized with a very good urban planning in the French period. Clean and well maintained buildings. In 1822, the French built a huge park on 320 thousand m² in the middle of the city, with 2,500 different trees and plants. Even today people come and walk around. Like the city’s oxygen depot. Behold, the citizen come to us to lie down in the “nation parks” are trying to be done or they have a very nice regular and planned one.


Rais 23 Palace is one of the great dey palaces here. In a large courtyard, three palaces intertwined, the ceiling and wall operations are wonderful and meaningful, for example the ceiling of the dining hall is adorned with beautiful fruit motifs. The palace, which is at a strategic point by the sea, was used by senior military officers during the Ottoman period.


Al Dgedid mosque, one of the largest mosques in the martyrs square. Here, mosques are used to worship people and to escape from the heat of the outside to sleep. A visit to another nearby mosque was a visit to many mosques today.


There are many common issues in our history about Algeria. One of them is Barbaros Hayrettin Pasha. He was born in Lesvos, whose real name was Hizir, and became a famous pirate in the Mediterranean waters with his brother Oruc, who was in the early 1500s. Khidr, who became increasingly strong, settled in the region that was called Algeria at that time with his brother and established dominance there. Now they collect money under the name of tax from the owners and the environment. His fame spread, and in Europe he became known as “barbe rousse”, meaning red beard because of his red beard. In the 1550s, the Spanish wanted to gain land by strengthening in the Mediterranean. Hizir realizing this, realizes that he can not cope with the Spaniards and sends news to the Ottoman sultan Suleiman the Magnificent and informs him that he wants to enter his protectorate. Kanuni sends troops to Khidr to support the chief and these places are under the control of the Ottoman Empire. Khidr reis becomes more powerful and provides the continuation of support by sending the collected taxes to the Ottoman Empire. Since there were other Khidr leaders in the same period, his name was changed to Barbaros Hayrettin Pasha by Suleiman the Magnificent.


Until 1830, the Ottoman Empire was very strong. With his battles and the uneasiness of the deyes, he began to lose strength and weakness.


From 1832 onwards, the French began to occupy the region, but for more than 40 years, they could only control Algeria. The struggle for independence, which started in 1945, was seen as a rebellion movement in its own territory and started to suppress it bloody. In the struggle for independence until 1962, 1.5 million Algerians were killed or tortured to death. In other words, 15% of the population, which is assumed to be 10 million on average, had disappeared. They built a huge Martyrs’ Memorial in 1982 to commemorate those who died in the war of independence that appeared everywhere on the highest peak of the city. It was quite nice, the tower rising on the ground on three legs at the top of the monument tower tower was not put. They’ve planted feathers all over it!

It was a good walk down the busy street of the city and enjoyed a good coffee.



We go to Tipaza, the first ancient city built by the sea in Roman times. It was founded as a commercial city by the Carthaginians in the 6th century BC and did not lose its importance for many years. Founded on three hills, the city accepted Christianity in its earliest period, but was later partially occupied and destroyed by the Vandals. 6. Yy. It was taken back by the Romans, but the 7th century. When it was occupied by the Arabs, it was demolished on the grounds that it was a Christian city. It is one of the best examples of lost Carthage and Roman civilizations. This place was also included in the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1982. The Tipaza Archaeological Museum, a newly-built museum, seems to be not fully settled in terms of museology, so maybe some time is needed. Tipaza is one of the places to be seen.


Young, old, women, men, offspring, children around me with a Algerian flag on their backs. No, the explanation came when I said what was going on. A protest march has been taking place every Friday in all Algerian cities for the resignation of the government because of corruption and major bribery. The state does not intervene with tomas, pepper spray and truncheons, does not arrest and does not arrest them in places, meets with understanding. Those who have more democratic rights than us are more civilized!


The tomb of Selena, daughter of Cleopatra, is on the World Heritage list under the same article as the Tipaza region. The Roman Empire really left great traces of that period.


On our way to the Consulate, we received a “tourist visa”. We didn’t know why, but as a result of serious efforts, we were able to get a visa. In fact, many Turkish companies are doing construction and different trade here. Maybe they want to postpone tourism for a while. Apparently the priority is industrial investments.



Leaving Algeria will be a long way to get to Setif in the evening. Three hours later, Beni Hammad castle. Established on a large area in 1007 residential area. Out of the 3 palaces and ponds in the area surrounded by walls, only the 25 meter high minaret of the mosque survived. The other places are almost destroyed. Hammadi Castle was built by Hammad, the son of Bologhine, the founder of Algeria in the 11th century. The mosque in the castle walls is the largest mosque of the period and is an important archaeological site since it bears the traces of that period. For this reason, it was included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1980. Afterwards, the whole city was looted and destroyed by the Hillians, the most bloody pro-Sharia Bedouin tribe in Africa.


From here, the ancient city of Djemila, one of the important centers of the Roman Empire. 1. Yy. is a regular Roman city founded in mountainous terrain. Some of the social places in the city, such as bazaars, baths, theaters and temples, reflecting that period have come to our day by carrying their magnificent traces. Some places were converted into cathedrals and churches during the Christian period. It is the most beautiful ancient city with its magnificent mosaics describing the social life of the period. In 1982, it was included in the UNESCO World Heritage list. Great place really, not to be impressed.


This is a Muslim country where some religious rules are considered state law. Alcoholic beverages are not sold so drink is not sold. You won’t find it outside some great hotels either. Most women have their heads covered, but this does not involve traditional style, bigotry or bigotry. So you can see men and women together everywhere. Here, at the same time, the call to prayer sounds, beautiful reading gives people awe.



In the morning, we set off when the cops escorted us.


When the colonial states take control of a country, they accept it as their own land in the future and invest in that way. When the French came here, they identified and recorded the historical places in all regions in 1900 and made serious investments in archaeological excavations. One of them is the tomb of the 1st Numudie King, built in 400 BC. The oldest tomb in Africa in the form of a round-domed circle with a height of 18 meters and a diameter of 58.5 meters. The tomb with four gates was built to surprise those who wanted to enter three of them completely for malicious purposes. Only one of them was the road to the tomb, and it was found during the restoration works in recent years. Now it seems a bit neglected and left to itself. In 1900, the French should be registered as a UNESCO World Heritage site.


One of the important places of the Roman period in the 1st and 3rd centuries is the ancient city of Timgad. Timbad, Aures mountains at the foot of the 1st century. A Roman city with military planning by Trojan. 6 century. da Byzantine 7yy. then under the Arab sovereignty and then gradually lost importance. They made a very nice museum where the mosaics from this region were exhibited. Magnificent paintings that cover the whole wall made of natural colored mosaics in very small dimensions. Another important feature of this place is the only place where the Bedouins and Romans lived together and in peace. For this reason, it is known as the city of peace and fertility. In 1982, it was included in the Unesco World Heritage List.


The ancient region of Tazaoult, where the army commanders lived here in 70 AD. The main building stands beautifully untouched, the other places are largely demolished.

Algeria is one of the important places in the Roman period, so there are many archaeological sites from the period.



We descend from the Mediterranean coast to the south through the Auries mountains. The Sahara desert, one of the world’s great deserts, is the place where Kandora begins. The Kndara desert gate is called the bridge built by the Romans over 1600 years ago for those who want to go to the desert. The entrance to the Sahara Desert starts here, followed by the city of Bistra. When you come from the north, the first settlement you encounter.


One of the important places here is the city of Okba, where life has continued for the 6th century. Hz. Siri Okba, one of the envoys of Muhammad, tried to spread Islam and was buried in the Siri Okba mosque built in his name. A majestic beautiful mosque. Nearby is the old settlement of mudbrick, now abandoned and in ruins.


Tahuda, one of the places where the Berbers lived, was occupied by the Romans in the 1st century and used as a military zone until the 4th century. Berbers are an ethnic group that has existed in this region since ancient times. Usually known as desert people living in the desert, the Berbers build their houses under the ground. This protects them from the unbearable heat of summer and the cold of winter and night. In the sixth century, the Berbers, who believed in the pagan belief of polytheism, converted to Islam as a result of Arab attacks.

Tahuda is the north of the great Sahara and where the reality of the desert began to become difficult.


Tighanimine Canyon is a really great canyon where a small population lived during the French period. After Algerian independence in 1962, the inhabitants could not resist the difficulties of the conditions and left. We’ve spent a lot of time here, but it was worth it.

Back to Batna, we’re back in the dark.


Batna is one of the most important historical places in the Roman and Byzantine periods.



We are heading towards Constantine, the 3rd largest city in Algeria. In the case of escorting a police car all the way back, arriving at the border of the region begins to accompany us to that region’s police car. At first, we thought for security reasons, but so far, such a thing has not attracted our attention, at different times, insistently why we need escorts every time we ask, every foreigner who comes to our country, we are accompanied by statements such as this is our future. Anyway it is enjoyable, siren in the congested traffic by stealing or something .. our weather is fine .. more tourists do not come, let’s see the tourism art Let’s see … Or we do not know the situation .. we get no end ..


I have read many articles here that women are humiliated and that they are in a typical Muslim country oppression. We didn’t see anything that attracted our attention, maybe in the countryside. My observation is that the women’s heads are traditionally mostly covered. However, this is not in the form of being religious for the sake of interest.


Costantine is the mosque built in the name of Abdul Kadir Emir who initiated the first independence movement against the French. It is a beautiful mosque of 15 thousand people, all embroidered like lace. The minarets of the mosques in Arabic architecture have four corners, the dome styles are different from our mosque architecture.


The Sidi Rached bridge is a historic bridge built in 1908 that connects the two sides of the valley. Even though the bridges are built in other bridges, this place still retains its importance with its style.


We walk around the city, it’s a nice neat place. We’re going to Kaspah, where the old town is. This is where the settlement first began, as in all other old cities, a bit messy and complicated. We came to Ahmet Bey Palace through the narrow streets. Completed in 1825, the palace was used as the administrative center of the period, the military center, the city’s president, the court was all here. Ahmet Bey is subordinated to Hüseyin Dey, who is in charge of the administrative position. In other words, “Dey” is above the “Bey.” After the French occupation in 1837, it was used as a military headquarters by the French. It is a huge place with many rooms. It is used as a museum today.


Arch-shaped walls built to bring water to the city during the Roman period. After seeing some of the places that were mostly destroyed, they continued on their way to Guelma.


Guelma, 60 km from the sea. away from the tourists do not come a bit east of its own case, an agricultural region with a population of 70 thousand. This is a place where there is plenty of underground thermal waters. In addition to outdoor thermal pools, some hotels also have thermal pools. In the middle of the city, the hot water, which contains a high percentage of calcium hydrocarbonate from the underground, has formed travertine by the precipitation of calcium carbonate by flying carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide in contact with air. It is like the formation of Pamukkale travertines. They gave it a different atmosphere, surrounded it and called it hammam. Of course, something must be connected to this situation, in such cases the legend will not be missing. Two close relatives loved each other very much, but because they did not conform to the traditions, God punished them with hot water and then stoned them. If you do it wrong, you’re a stone. The message is good, the place is worse than the good ones, there is no stone or boiled.


Another importance of this place is the fact that the 2nd President Uari Bumedian, born in Heliopolis, which was very close to this place, made great contributions that served Algeria between 1965 and 1978 and is still remembered and respected by the public.


Guelma, the center of the agency that organizes the trip to Algeria, the guide is also from here. When this happened, it was unexpected. When we came here, the agency owner, her children and their wives came together to meet us. The first thing I noticed was the behavior of women, first of all I was hesitant about how the behavior of women towards a foreign man would be extremely civilized. We were together in a really sincere atmosphere, they gave gifts to each of us and finally left with our wishes to meet again.

Education in Algeria; Elementary school five, middle school is compulsory for 3 years but it is not easy to apply in the countryside. It is compulsory in French schools and therefore the second official language besides Arabic. Ameze, which is in Berber language, is also becoming more widespread. There are at least one university in all 48 provinces in the country. The minimum wage is around 100 euros, and the average wage is 200-300 euros. Pension may be different according to the institution and year you work. Algeria is a serious oil country.


Every Friday at the same time in all Algerian cities, protest marches against the government for corruption and bribery. This protest march was attended by people from all walks under the name of peaceful march. There are no interventions made with tomas, pepper gas batons and no arrests. Algeria is more democratic and respectful of human rights.


Marriage is usually the subject of the proposal and acceptance of families, which is usually arranged. Families agreed in the presence of the imam wedding and notary public marriage. Usually the wedding expenses are on the man’s back. Although it is possible to marry four women, monogamy is increasingly prevailing due to circumstances. Polygamy is usually in the countryside. The age of marriage in women can be at an early age with the consent of the families.



The amphitheater, built by the Romans in the 3rd century in Guelma, has been enlarged and expanded in time and is now used as a theater in some art events. Roman sculptures and other artifacts collected from the surrounding area are on display right next to the museum. During the Roman Imperial period and after the French occupation process, this land has added a different value.


A beautiful church built in 1881 in the city of Anaba on the Mediterranean coast in the name of Saint Augustine by the French. It is still well maintained and working, which means that there are a certain number of Christian communities.


We came to the most important part of this trip. We fly to Ghardaia, which has a population of 18 000 and is the main city in the M’Zap valley with a total population of 190 thousand in the Sahara desert. This is an oasis bed in the middle of the desert. Almost all Berberis live in the region. In Africa there are two major ethnic groups living in the desert, the Tuaregs and the Berbers. The great Sahara desert is dominated by Berbers. There are a total of five Berber settlements along with Ghardaia. Here, Arabic and French are the official language and the locals speak among themselves, Mzap, which is usually the Berber language. They have been included in the 1982 Unesco World Heritage list for many years since they have preserved their traditions and cultures in the same way. Almost the entire region is a Muslim region, but solid Muslims. There are religious principles in Algerian Islamic countries and laws, but this is a little different … The local Berber people of Islam from the Iberian sect are closer to the Sharia rules, cruel and bigotry. All of the women are covered with sheets, and if they are single, they are married with their faces open, almost even with their eyes closed, and they look at the world with only one eye. Bus stops and buses are separately for men and women. Men usually wear baggy trousers and a skullcap or a turban. If any woman encounters a foreign man on the road, she either comes back and hides in another street or waits for her to cross her head to the wall and look down. In some streets there are cavities made for women to hide, and if they meet men, they enter here. In other words, the place where the woman is not presumed to exist, where the Sharia laws prevail. Those who are longing for this job can come here and settle in… For women to keep cool in summer, in winter, she wraps in sheets made of thick woolen cloth. We’ve got a lot of warnings about taking pictures, especially for women. If you take only one eye of women, you will not know which woman whose wife is the beginning of her age.

in the morning, we tour the areas of central Ghardaia. The first place is El Atteuf, founded in 1082. The streets are so narrow that two people cannot cross each other, almost the same houses. We are walking around the cemetery fell, different from the Muslim tombs we know. Woman buried early in different way. Once, everyone’s feet are towards Qibla, why? Resurrection on the Day of Resurrection and the first place where we lay up to see the Kaaba. Admit it honestly, you know? Two tombs are placed on the head end of men’s tombs, one tombstone is placed on the feet of women. The pregnant woman who died is another stone on her belly. The accepted holy book is the same but everyone reads, understands or does not understand. One day, all Muslims unite in the same understanding and compassion. It’s actually a messy and neglected place. Our cemeteries are generally much more organized and well maintained. The minarets of the Berber mosques are narrowed to four corners as they rise, while the Arab mosque minarets are shaped like four corners rising in the same dimensions. It is immediately noticeable from a distance. This is the desert climate, worship is also difficult, for this reason the mosque is a good idea. It was a beautiful and convenient place at the time, it is not used as a mosque today, it was the place where the last one used to breathe in the cool place.


There was no way to go to every area, the Bounura residential area is far back and a bigot. The guide did not dare to take us there. They were very good at looking at strangers besides themselves. In fact, we could not be too insistent, let’s not open a business.


Ghardaia, where the central administration is slightly different from other places, is like a city where shopping and general needs are met. Population is more than others. The governor and the mayor are here. People are moving around. There is not much in the middle of other settlements, before lunch, men at work, children at school, and women at home on the street. In the afternoon, the majority is sleeping at home because of the hot, siesta situation.


Ghardaia center in a bit of a snack we said let’s breathe. We don’t have escort cops here when we need it, we’re alone with our destiny. It is not clear what ignorance will do to the extent of bigotry. As a matter of fact, a man was going to tear up a cell phone and a friend’s phone that took the environment, just because you took my picture.


Melika region, like all other regions, is surrounded by walls, the entrance and exit is certain. In the 19th century, the Al Atik mosque was built in Arabian style, and there are plenty of mosques here. The French school was devoted to religious education today. In the morning he gives religious education to boys and girls in the afternoon and there are sacred tombs in his garden. So the ulama, dying here are buried important clergy in this cemetery. In the past, a group of Jews from Tunisia have taught people here to help with handicrafts. After the French left, they left because of religious pressure because of the lack of life security. For this reason, they are more artful than other places.

There were many tribal wars in the 1400s. In order to defend the settlements against the enemy, the streets were narrow and some places had low arches. During the raid, enemy soldiers who did not pass on horseback were killed by soldiers stationed in the vicinity. For this reason, the enemy soldiers can not enter the narrow streets. Tactical methods varying according to circumstances.

The beautiful girl, four or five years old, held by a woman who is tightly covered in front of me, trying to run away from us by looking at the ground, cannot take her eyes off me for the first time she has ever seen as a stranger in her life. They disappeared between the street and her mother’s persistent tug


Fate is where you were born,


 how true. In a few years, this little girl will start to cover up, probably marry at a young age and be the crush, humiliation, beating, and ignorance of a man. Ignoring half of the human genus, that is not Islamic justice The whole Islamic world believes in the same holy book, but no one understands what it actually says, concentrated ignorance!


There will be great floods in the desert. Here, too, floods that caused great damage until ten years ago. They took the flood waters under control with a very wise method and then they used it in the desert life. Large gratings and many wells were drilled in front of the floods, and these water and gratings were connected to each other under the ground and collected the water coming from the underground in large cisterns. Later, they used these waters in agriculture to do serious work. This method has been the lifeblood of the region for more than 500 years. When the floods started after the heavy rain, everyone screamed and showed joy, but unfortunately since 2008 it has not rained on this scale.


Palm production is an important economic value here. They claim that the highest quality dates are grown here. All Arab countries say the same thing between us. How we planted, female male, how to fertilize how to look pruned all learned.


Beni Isguen is a residential area opened in 1255. Like the others, we are waiting through the door surrounded by walls, the guide will come and give information about the subject and the place. After a little delay, our guide went and found the man somewhere but he didn’t like us, maybe we woke up from sleep, not as enthusiastic. Eventually I was convinced, we are walking around with the old guide of the spirit of Beni Isguen region. Narrow streets, bumpy place. The doors are lightly inset, and there are slits in the hills. We asked what are these, when the doorbell rings, the lady of the house sees who is coming from that crevice in one direction. The man opens the door for sure, if there are no men in the house, he will click the door from the inside. The only open-eye women who run away like they’ve seen the plague when they see us again. There is not much anyone around, folks kebab at noon sleep, we walk around the hill in the sun. It’s time to say goodbye to the spirit old guide, and he can go and sleep as well from where he left off.


Due to the increasing population, new settlements were opened. The most popular place here is Tahlalat, a French architect, who started in 2004 and has all the characteristics of this area. We haven’t seen anybody around, and everybody’s here at noon. There is no place here to go to nightlife or evening and spend time somewhere, after dinner in the daytime sleep, let’s get tired again good night. Probably something like that.


The government gives long-term loans to promote agriculture in the countryside. People come here and do houses and deal with agriculture. Judging by the unfinished constructions that started on the road, there is no one who has come and succeeded. We have entered a place where b is successful in this regard. The man was excited to see us, actually he was very happy. In a place where there wasn’t many people, people started to explain how they dug wells, watered their irrigation methods and what they had teamed up. On the way, he took a big case full of vegetables. We have made plenty of carrot cucumbers to enjoy at dinner with wonderful salads, the rest also needs a weekly vegetable to the driver, for sure.


We are visiting another field owner who has come here before, we are used to free life. This is more of a settled situation than seated, peanut cookies accompanied by mint tea, sincere hospitality indeed. The wind has hardened in the last hours, and the dust and the rain started to rain, and it is time to leave. People who deal with nature know the rules of nature and do nothing wrong with it. It respects the human being who respects nature.


 “The way to rule nature is to obey it.”


The economy in the M’Zab valley mainly focuses on agriculture and animal husbandry. The narrow streets and the lives that make it harder in line with their beliefs, the challenges of the ruthless desert, the Berber people of the Sahara Desert, who are accustomed to living with their fate. There’s no life in the desert from here.


Algeria, the centuries-old Roman civilization still hiding the smell of the French occupation of a different culture and habits, the Sahara desert lord of the Berbers both nature and make it difficult to struggle with their own lives… unique exotic country…


yours affectionately

Hayrettin Kagnici

April 2019


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